Instructional Strategy-Referenced Reflection
In introducing the concept of direct object pronouns, I used Marzano’s strategies of identifying similarities, non-linguistic representation and teaching about effort. I introduced the concept of the direct object by first reviewing English sentences to refresh encourage the students knowledge from their English grammar lessons. I then showed them the French equivalent. I used a kinesthetic technique where I had the students in their family groups form human sentences using large laminated cards. They first used their chosen direct object, then replaced it with a pronoun which show the physical change of the direct object position in the sentence as well as the agreement of the past participle in the passé compose. I let the students know in advance that the human sentences were a new strategy and asked them for feedback afterwards whether or not I should use it again in the future. The students unanimously voted to keep the exercise. Lastly, the concept of past pronoun-participle agreement can be difficult for English speakers to comprehend. I related to the students my experience when learning this concept and how with practice and usage it became much easier and encouraged not to get bogged down with the concept but give it time to sink in with practice and usage.
For future lessons on this topic, I would indicate the tense in which their human sentence should be constructed in order for the students to become familiar with the pronoun placement by tense as well as allowing them to see several examples of pronoun-past participle agreement.
My mentor teacher had the original idea of a human sentence so she liked that I made it “come to life” and she plans to use it in her future lessons. She also reviewed my presentation and made minor cosmetic changes.
Standard S Criterion-Referenced Reflection
This lesson helped the students “physically” see the French language and its similarities and differences with the English language. After the lesson, I asked the students if they thought the lesson was effective and what would they remember. They commented that the human sentences would stick with them and they would remember the pronoun placement change because they would remember their classmates physically moving their position when they changed from the direct object to the direct object pronoun. They expressed that the pronoun-past participle agreement concept was still a bit unclear and that they would need more work with it – which they got!
Standard T Criterion-Referenced Reflection
During the lesson, I used a mixture of oral questioning, multiple written example and non-linguistic representation to try and capture a wide range of learning styles of my students. I followed this with written homework and daily entry tasks to practice the concepts learned. On their summative exam, about 80% of students performed well on the topic.
Use of the PowerPoint and highlighting of the direct objects vs. pronouns, and past participle agreement in different colors helped to display the information more clearly to the students. Also the use of fun graphics, help to keep the students more attentive and focused on the presentation.
The artifacts consist of photos taken to demonstate the concept of the human phrases the students created. These show a sentence with a direct object and the changes of position when a direct object pronoun replaces the object and the agreement of the past participle that occurs in the passé composé. My mentor teacher had the concept and helped create the cards and I added to them and made suggestions for showing the past participle agreement.
I also created a Powerpoint to clarify the concept of direct objects, direct object pronouns, sentence position and past participle agreement.
I also included my lesson plan.